report for english chapter 3

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

    1. Background Issues

The use of information technology world today, especially as the computer can not be avoided anymore. Almost all community activities, especially in the company has been using computers to support their activities. Currently the computer has been used extensively to regulate activity, especially in the company through the application and assisted with network systems. As the foundation of an information system, computer network infrastructure is the most essential part that must be always available. Many of the losses that will result if a computer network infrastructure suddenly unavailable and not repaired in a short time.

  SMA Negeri 13 Bandar Lampung, which is one high school in Lampung province, especially in the city of Bandar Lampung, it is necessary to create a system that is useful across computers to aid teaching and learning activities that perform everyday activities. Network system is made ​​in order to improve teaching methods in a particular school SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung so any well-planned learning activities with the aim of making the activities more effectively and efficiently.

For that it needed a server computer that has a special system to support the network system in SMA Negeri 13 Bandar Lampung. Computer with a good specification and has enough memory for maximum server performance. Computer with a dedicated operating system as a server is a computer needed to be a center of computer networks in SMA Negeri 13 Bandar Lampung in this case the school is using the Linux Operating System Fedora Core 14. On Operating Systems there is also a facility that can help to facilitate the work in the computer network. DNS Server and Web Server are some facilities that can assist the work in the company. Thus the authors try to define the configuration of some of the facilities available in the server computer.

    1. Limitations

Limitation issue of this report are:

    1. How do I install the Linux OS and Network Configuration on Fedora Core 14 with text-based?
    2. How to install and configure DNS server on Fedora Core 14 with text-based?
    3. How to install and configure the Web Server on Fedora Core 14 with text-based?
    1. Objectives Work Practice

In general practice work report aims to:

    1. Knowing how to work a computer network for real.
    2. Can understand and learn about the configuration of some server facilities Fedora Core 14 with text-based.
    3. Applying science that has been acquired during their college and get to know the work environment directly in the company or agency that relates to the needs of computer use.
    4. Comparing the understanding of knowledge which has been obtained directly in the field and enhance the thinking of students, ranging from planning to execution of a particular work related to information technology.
    1. Benefits of Working Practices
    1. Directly acquires knowledge in the field, not just theory.
    2. Can directly apply the knowledge gained into the problems given in the agency carrying out practical work.
    3. Establish a good interaction of the outsiders in this case the carrying out practical work.
    1. Location and Time Employment Practices
      1. Workplace Practices

   Location practical work undertaken by the authors:

Company Name: SMA STATE 13 Bandar Lampung, Lampung

Address: Jl. Intensive Rajabasa Jaya, Rajabasa

Bandar Lampung.

      1. Time Work Practice

Practical work carried out on March 21, 2011 to April 19, 2011.

    1. Systematics of Writing

Systematics of writing used in the preparation of this practical work is as follows:

  • CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the author describes the various things that cause the writing is done. This chapter describes in more detail about the background of the issue, limit the problem, formulation of the problem, purpose and objectives, methodology of writing, the location and time of research and writing systematics.

  • CHAPTER II: COMPANY PROFILE

In this chapter explained about the profile picture, a brief history of the founding of SMA Negeri 13 Bandar Lampung, the location and environment, facilities and infrastructure, a state employee, state student, organizational structure, vision and mission, strategies, facilities, practices and working environment in SMA Negeri 13 Bandar Lampung.

  • CHAPTER III: REVIEW REFERENCES

In this chapter described the theoretical basis related to the subject matter of this practical work.

  • CHAPTER IV: METHODOLOGY WORKING PRACTICES

This chapter describes the mindset of working practices framework and explains each its phases.

  • CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION

In this chapter described the discussion of the definition, the installation of Fedora Core Operating System 14, and configuration of multiple facilities located on Fedora Core 14, among others, Network, DNS Server, and Web Server.

  • CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION

This chapter describes the conclusions obtained from the results of research and experiments have been performed. And also explained about the useful constructive suggestions to improve system performance in the future.

CHAPTER II

COMPANY PROFILE

    1. Overview of State High School 13 Bandar Lampung
      1. Brief History The establishment of State High School 13 Bandar Lampung

8 In accordance with the national education goals, namely to contribute to the intellectual life of the nation and to develop the full potential of human Indonesia, the man who is faithful and devoted to God Almighty, righteous character and have the knowledge and skills, personality, physically and mentally healthy and responsible community and nationality. Then based on the above, founded High School (SMA) 13 Bandar Lampung District in order to share responsibility for achieving the national education.

Another thing from the standpoint of high school (SMA) District 13 Bandar Lampung, to provide opportunities to students who excel in order to obtain a place at High School (SMA) District 13 is located in Bandar Lampung Bandar Lampung City area who did not proceed to high school (high school) outside the State in Bandar Lampung, given in Rajabasa region there is a new high school (SMA) State, thus becoming the top choice of parents and students who excel in particular those living in areas Rajabasa, Kandis Way and Surrounding Areas.

The existence of two high school (SMA) in the region Rajabasa State (City of Bandar Lampung), it appeared unable to accommodate students graduate high school achievement, so that selection tests are held to be acceptable at the school.

Belfast High School District 13 was established in 1997 with the Ministry of Education Decree No. 4919/B/III dated 30 September 1997 under the name High School (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 which is located in the village of Hope Light District Rajabasa Bandar Lampung.

From 1997 to present Senior High School 13 Bandar Lampung has several times experienced Principal changes are as follows:

  1. 1997 to 1998 led by Drs. Sugiarto
  2. Year 1998 to 2000 led by Drs. Syahruddin
  3. Year 2000 to 2002 led by Drs. Tarman Jupani
  4. 2002 to 2006 led by Drs. Hi. Ahyauddin
  5. Of 2006 s / d now, led by Mrs. P. Kartiningsih, S.Pd.
      1. Location and Environment SMA 13 Bandar Lampung

High School (SMA) District 13 is located at Jalan Bandar Lampung Hope Village Light District Rajabasa Bandar Lampung is a bit far from the crowds but easy to be a variety of vehicles.

The distance between the school district administrative centers, the City and Province, as follows:

  1. The schools with the Capital District of + 1.5 km
  2. Distance to the capital city of Bandar Lampung school + 5 km
  3. The schools with the Provincial Capital + 7 Km
      1. Infrastructures High School (SMA) State 13 Bandar Lampung.

Regarding facilities and infrastructure that is used by high school (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 school year from 2010 to 2011, is as follows:

a. Learning space = 16 local

b. Principal space = 1 local

c. Space Master = 1 local

  1. Administrative Space = 1 local
  2. Space UKS = 1 local
  3. Library space = 1 local
  4. Space BP = 1 local
  5. Computer Room = 1 local
  6. Laboratory space = 1 local
  7. Local mosque space = 1
  8. Students Cooperative space = 1 local
  9. Toilet Teachers = 2 local
  10. WC = 7 Local Students
  11. The parking lot = 1 local
  12. Cafeteria = 1 local

number = 32 local

Infrastructures High School (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 school year 2010/2011, as mentioned above is still in good condition and ready for use in helping to smooth the process of teaching and learning in school.

      1. State employees State High School 13 Bandar Lampung

As we know that the number of civil High School (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 school year 2010/2011 is 57 employees, with details according to educational level can be seen in the following table:

Table 2.1 Data About Employee Education Level High School District 13 Bandar Lampung Lessons Year 2010 / 2011

No

Teacher Education Level Total (Persons) Percentage (%)

A

2

3

4

Bachelor Full

Bachelor (D3)

SMA

SMP

47

2

4

4

82.46

3.50

7.02

7.02

Number 57 100.00

Sources: SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung

Based on data in the table above, the state obtained as follows:

Of the total 57 employees High School (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 school year from 2010 to 2011 then a Full Degree educated, that amounted to 47 people (82.46%) and Bachelor of educated employees, which amounted to 2 people (3, 50%), high school consists of 4 people (7.02%) and junior staff totaling four people (7.02%).

      1. Students state high school (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13

`Based on student data, obtained the total number of students in grade I to grade III High School (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 school year 2010-2011 is 493 students spread out in 12 classes.

Regarding the breakdown of the number of students in each class, will be seen in the table that will put forward the following:

Table 2.2 Data About the Number of Students High School (SMA) State 13 Bandar Lampung.

No Class Number of Classes

Male

Woman Number

A

2

3

I

II

III

4

4

4

80

91

94

82

74

72

162

165

166

12 265 228 493

Sources: SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung

The teaching and learning activities in high school (SMA) Bandar Lampung District 13 school year from 2010 to 2011 was conducted in the morning.

      1. Organizational Structure of State High School 13 Bandar Lampung

Regarding the organizational structure of the High School (SMA) 13 Bandar Lampung District can be seen in the following scheme:

Figure 2.1 Organizational Structure of State High School 13 Bandar Lampung

Principal: P. Kartiningsih, S. Pd

Waka Student: Sumarto, S. Pd

Waka Curriculum: Drs. Joko Sudibyo

Waka Means: Setiadi, S. Pd

Waka PR: Julianto, S. Pd

Administrative Kaur: Hirina

Laboratory: Drs. Asraf, MM

(Source: SMA Negeri 13 Bandar Lampung, Year 2010)

    1. Vision and Mission

Vision:

“The quality of Populist and Islamic” (meaning: SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung educate generations of the nation’s knowledgeable, trained, skilled and able to compete in the lives of upholding local culture and national values, as well as having nilia and Islamic morals).

Mission:

Develop a competitive attitude, democratic, responsible, and be professional in charge of community pride.

    1. Destination

Produce qualified graduates, able to compete, have a strong moral and acceptable in society.

    1. Strategy
  • Enough teachers and competent in their field
  • Develop an attitude of belonging and responsibility
  • Fostering a harmonious relationship between the school and community
  • Orderly and transparent management
  • Develop strategies / methods of effective teaching
  • Empowerment of all elements in the planning and activities
    1. Facilities
  1. Schoolhouse
  1. A complete library
  2. Complete laboratory
  3. Overhead projector (OHP)
  4. Mosque
  5. Canteen
    1. Environmental Work Practices

The implementation of practical work in SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung concerning the creation of applications and employee payroll teachers are generally carried out at room head of finance (treasurer) SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung for approximately one month. As for the room facilities include: an Intel Pentium IV computer unit, a printer unit and other supporting facilities such as stationery. The process of practical work is also supervised by the field supervisor and Chief Lab. Computer SMAN 13 Bandar Lampung, Drs. Asraf, MM.

Translated version of BAB III.doc

CHAPTER III

REVIEW REFERENCES

3.1 Definition of Computer Networks

Understanding the network is a collection of computer or multiple computers that are connected so that they can communicate and exchange data with a short time and can use the resources together. By looking at the above understanding of computer networks, it can be concluded some of the benefits of computer networks:

    • Network enables more efficient management of resources.
    • Network to help maintain reliable information and keep up to date.
    • Enabling delivery of more integrated network.
    • Networking enables workgroups to communicate more efficiently.
    • Data security is guaranteed.
    • Save on maintenance costs.

17

3.2. Basic Network

3.2.1 Peer-to-Peer

image Network operating system model peer to peer allows a user to share their resources in both computer data files, printers and other resources and access contained in another computer. But this model does not have a file server or a centralized resource

Figure 3.1. Peer to Peer Network Model

3.2.2 Workstation (Client / Server).

A file server is at the heart of the whole system, allowing for access resources, and providing security. Stand-alone workstation that can take the resources that exist on the file server. This network operating system, providing mekaninsme for integrating all the components in the network and allows multiple users to simultaneously use the resource on the file server. Linux, Novel Netware, and Windows NT is one example of a network operating system model of client-server

image

  Figure 3.2. Client / server network

    1. Types of Computer Networks

In building a computer network there are several types of multicomputer networks, LAN (Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), WAN (W idea Area Network) and the Internet. For practical work report this type of network used is a LAN (Local Area Network).

1. Multicomputer

This network type is a system that communicate by sending messages through the short bus and very fast.

2. LAN (Local Area Network)

LAN is a network that connects multiple computers within a local area. Generally used in the home, office, industrial, university or academic, hospital and similar areas

N

Figure 3.3. Local Area Network

3. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is basically a LAN version of the larger and usually wear the same technology with LAN. MAN can include corporate offices are adjacent and can be used for private purposes (private) or public.

image

Figure 3.4. Metropolitan Area Network

4. Wide Area Network (WAN)

image Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a wide geographical area, often covering a country or continent. WAN consists of a collection of machines that aim to run application programs.

Figure 3.5. Wide Area Network

5. Internetwork (Internet)

The number of networks in the world, often using hardware and software that is different. Most people desire is to combine all the existing network in the world, so the need for communication between computers will be easily met. Internet is a collection of networks interconnected with each other, if the system is connected not match then the gateway machine is required for the translator to packets that are sent can be received.

ter2

Figure 3.6. Internetwork (Internet)

    1. Computer Network Topology LAN

Topology is a way to connect one computer to another computer so as to form a network. There is a type of network topology in which each has a characteristic topology, with its own advantages and drawbacks. For this type of topology that can be used include:

    1. Topology Bus

Bus topology uses a single cable where all workstations and servers are connected. The advantages of this topology is the development of a network or adding new workstations can be done without disturbing the other workstations. While the weakness of this topology when there are disturbances in the center of the cable along the entire network will come to crash.

image

Figure 3.7. Topology Bus

    1. Topology Ring

In the ring topology all workstations and servers are connected to form a circle or ring patterns. Each workstation or server will receive and pass information from one computer to another, if the addresses match then the information is received and if no information will be passed. The drawback of this topology is that every node in the network will always come and manage the information passed in the network, so if there is a disturbance in a node then the entire network will be disrupted. While the advantages of ring topology is not collision or the collision of data transmission such as in a bus topology, since only one node can transmit data at a time.

ng

Figure 3.8. Ring Topology

    1. Topology Star

This topology where the network topology meruapakan using centralized control (Hub), all links must pass through the center of the channel data is all of a node or client chooses. Central node is called the primary station or a server and other is called the secondary stations or client server. Once the network connection initiated by the server, each server at any time the client can use the network connection without waiting for commands from the server.

ar

Figure 3.9. Star Topology

    1. Type of Media Liaison Network

Cable is the interface to send information from one computer to another. There are several types of cables are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network using only one cable types, on the other network using a different cable. The cable chosen is based on the network topology, network protocol, and size. It’s very important to know because of the creation of a network depends on all of these aspects. Types of cables used in a network:

3.5.1 Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Twisted pair cable there are two types of shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and generally are the best choices for a simple network.

image

Figure 3.10.Unshielded twisted pair cable

The quality of UTP cable is different with telephone, cable has four pairs of wires in it. Each pair are twins.

      • Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables category

Table 3.1 Categories of UTP

Type Use
Category 1 Voice Only (Telephone Wire)
Category 2 Data to 4 Mbps (LocalTalk)
Category 3 Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet)
Category 4 Data to 20 Mbps (16 Mbps Token Ring)
Category 5 Data to 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet)
      • Cable Connectors Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Standard connector for this cable type is RJ-45 connector.

image

  Figure 3.11. RJ-45 connector

    1. Server Software Support

On the DNS Server Installation and Web Server was also required in addition to hardware software in planning a computer network. This section will discuss about the software being used.

      1. DNS (Domain Name System)

DNS (Domain Name System, in the Indonesian language is the Domain Naming System) is a system that stores information about hostnames and domain names in the form of scattered data base (distributed databases) in a computer network, such as the Internet. DNS provides the IP address for each host name, and lists the mail transmission server (mail exchange server) that receives electronic mail (email) for each domain.

DNS provides an important service to the Internet, where computers and network hardware work with IP addresses to perform tasks such as addressing and routing (routing), people generally prefer to use the host name and domain name, for example, is the appointment of a universal source (URL ) and e-mail address. A common analogy used to describe its function is to control can be regarded as a phone book in which the current internet users type in the internet browser http://www.sman13bl.edu then the user will be redirected to the IP address 192.168.100.1 (IPv4) and 2620:0:2 d0: 200:: 10 (IPv6).

        1. A Brief History of DNS

The use of the name as legible abstraction machine address in a computer network that is better known by man even TCP / IP, and back to the days of the ARPAnet. Formerly, every computer on the network computer using the file HOSTS.TXT from SRI (now SIR International), which maps an address to a name (technically, this file is still there – most modern operating systems use either raw or through configuration, can view the Hosts file to match a host name into an IP address before performing a search via DNS). However, the system had inherent limitations because of the obvious requirement that every time a computer’s address changed, every system that wanted to communicate with these computers need an update to its Hosts file.

DNS is a system that could replace the host address in just one place, other hosts will study these changes dynamically.

Paul Mockapetris invented the DNS in 1983; original specifications appear in RFC 882 and 883. In 1987, the publication of RFC 1034 and RFC 1035 updated the DNS specification. This makes the RFC 882 and RFC 883 obsolete. Several recent RFCs have memproposikan few extra from the core DNS protocols.

        1. THEORY OF WORK DNS

Management of the DNS system consists of three components:

    • DNS resolver, a client program that runs on a user’s computer, which makes DNS requests from application programs.
    • recursive DNS server, which searches through the DNS in response to queries from resolvers and returns answers to those resolvers;
    • authoritative DNS servers that provide answers to queries from recursor, either in the form of an answer, or in the form of delegation (ie referral to the authoritative DNS server).
        1. DNS in Practice

When an application (eg web browser), wants to find the IP address of a domain name, the application does not necessarily follow all the steps outlined in the above theory. We will first look at the concept of caching, and then outline the operation of DNS in the “real world”.

    • Caching and the lifetime (caching and time to live)

provision of mechanisms that can reduce the load of each Because the large number of requests from systems such as DNS, DNS designers wanted the DNS server. The mechanism devised provided that when a DNS resolver (client) receives a DNS response, it would cache for a specified period. A value (which is set by the administrator of the DNS server that provides the answer) called the time to live (life), or TTL defines that period. Once a response goes into cache, the resolver will consult its answer is stored in the cache; only when the TTL expires (or when the administrator flushes the response from the resolver’s memory manually) will the resolver contact the DNS server for the same information.

    • Propagation time (propagation time)

An important consequence of this distributed and caching architecture is that changes to the DNS are not always immediately effective in large scale / global. The following example will probably explain it: If an administrator has set a TTL of 6 hours for the host http://www.wikipedia.org, and then change the IP address of http://www.wikipedia.org at 12:01 pm, the administrator must consider that there are (at least) one individual who cached a response with the old value at 12:00 pm will not consult the DNS server to pk 18:00. The period between 12:00 pm and 18:00 pk in this example is called propagation time (propagation time), which can be defined as a period of time that begins between when a change of control data, and ends after the maximum time specified by the TTL passed . This will lead to logical considerations are important when making changes to DNS: not all will see the same thing as you can see. RFC1537 can help explain this.

    • DNS in the real world

In the real world, the user does not deal directly with the DNS resolver they are dealing with programs such as web brower (Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer, Netscape, Konqueror, etc. and mail clients (Outlook Express, Mozilla Thunderbird etc.) . When users make a request DNS lookups (generally, almost all activities that use the Internet), the program sends a request to the DNS resolver in the operating system.

        1. Note Type – The type of DNS

Important categories of data stored in the DNS include the following:

    • A record or address record maps a hostname to an IP address 32-bit (for IPv4).
    • AAAA record or IPv6 address record maps a host name to IP address 128-bit (for IPv6).
    • CNAME record or canonical name record makes one domain name an alias. In-alias domains to own the entire subdomains and DNS record as the original.
    • [MX record]] “or mail exchange record maps a domain name to the list of mail exchange servers for that domain.
    • PTR record or pointer record maps a hostname to canonical name for that host. Making the record PTR ​​for a host name in the in-addr.arpa domain that represents an IP address behind the quest to implement DNS (reverse DNS lookup) to that address. For example (when writing / translation of this article), http://www.icann.net have the IP address 192.0.34.164, but a PTR charted the record,, 164.34.0.192.in-addr.arpa to name kanoniknya: referrals.icann.org.
    • An NS record or name server record maps a domain name to a list of DNS servers for that domain. Representation depends on the record NS.
    • SOA record or start of authority (Start of Authority) the DNS server providing authoritative information about an Internet domain.
    • SRV record is a record of the location in general.
    • TXT record allows an administrator to insert arbitrary text into a DNS record; record is also used in the specification of the Sender Policy Framework.

Other kinds of records simply provide information (for example, a LOC record gives the physical location of a host, or experimental data (for example, a WKS record gives a list of servers that provide services are known (well-known service) such as HTTP or POP3 for a domain.

        1. DNS Software

Several types perangakat DNS software implement the DNS, some of them:

    • BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain)
    • djbdns (Daniel J. Bernstein ‘s DNS)
    • MaraDNS
    • QIP (Lucent Technologies)
    • NSD (Name Server Daemon)
    • PowerDNS
    • Microsoft DNS (for the server editions of Windows 2000 and Windows 2003)

One of the daemon on Linux that serves as a DNS server or name server is named. Named is part of the program package BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain), which has now reached version 9.

BIND (abbreviation of the English language: Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is the most common DNS server used on the Internet, especially on Unix-type operating system which is a de facto standard. BIND was originally created by four students with CSRG at the University of California, Berkeley and first released in 4.3BSD. Paul Vixie then forwards its programming in 1988 while working at the DEC.   

      1. Web Server

Web server is a server that handles requests a web page domain or address. These requests usually via port 80. On Linux, the web server (Apache) is known also as the http daemon. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocols) is a protocol used to communicate between the client (usually called a browser) and web server.

Web server is a facility that provides a reliable web application infrastructure, can be managed, and scalable. Web server provides a reliable web application infrastructure, can be managed, and scalable. Because most of this role has a lot of role services that can be selected and activated. So that a company can create a web of local networks that can be accessed by computers connected to the network server.

How it Works Web Server:

    • How it works Web Server Web server is the machine where the application or distribute the software to operate in a web page to the user, of course in accordance with user demand.
    • The relationship between Web Server and Internet Browser or a combination of existing computer networks around the world. Once physically connected, Protocol TCP / IP (networking protocol) which enables all computers can communicate with any others. At the time the browser requests a web page data to the server then the instruction requests data by the browser in containers in the TCP transport protocol and who is sent to the reply address in this case is the next protocol is Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP is the protocol in use on the World Wide Web (WWW) between a computer that is connected in a network in the world. To know the protocol is obviously unbelievably easy once where every time you type http:// … you have used it, and bring you into the world of the Internet. The passing of data from browser to Web server called the HTTP request beseeching web page and then the web server will look for existing HTML data and the pack in the TCP protocol and were sent back to the browser. The data being sent from the server to the browser is referred to as an HTTP response. If the data requested by the browser was not found by the web server then it will meninbulkan error oft you see on the web page that is Error: 404 Page Not Found.

3.7. Operating System

3.7.1 Definition of Operating System

The operating system is a liaison between the users of computers with computer hardware. Before there was an operating system, people only use a computer using an analog signal and digital signals. Along with the development of knowledge and technology, at present there are a variety of operating systems with the advantages of each. To better understand the operating system then you should need to know first some basic concepts about the operating system itself.

General understanding of the operating system is managing the resources contained on computer systems and provides a set of services (system calls) to the user, making it easier and comfortable use and utilization of computer system resources.

3.7.2 Basic Operating System Functions

The computer system basically consists of four main components, namely hardware, application programs, operating systems, and users. The operating system serves to regulate and supervise the use of hardware by the various application programs and users. Operating system to function like a government within a country, in the sense of making the conditions so that the computer can run the program properly.

To avoid conflicts that occur when users use the same resources, the operating system manage which users can access a resource. The operating system is also often called the resource allocator. One more important function is as an operating system control program that aims to avoid the mistake (error) and the unnecessary use of computers.

      1. Type of Operating System

Windows Operating 1.Sistem

Windows operating system made ​​by Microsoft company located in America and led by Bill Gates. Why is this operating system called “Windows”. Since that first appeared on the monitor screen when the computer is turned on is the image such as windows. Windows operating system is undergoing several changes and improvements.

At the end of the year 1980 (beginning of year 1990 to 1994) is famous for the Windows 3.0 operating system, Windows 3.1.1 are known to generations of Windows 3.x, then experience the changes to Windows 95 after Windows 98 (Windows 9.x), changed again into Windows 2000, Windows ME (Millennium Edition / Millennium Edition), windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7.

2.Sistem Linux Operating

Linux was made ​​in 1991 by Linus Torvalds is an operating system derived from Minix, Minix itself developed from the UNIX operating system is one of the world-famous. System equipment and libraries most of the GNU operating system announced by Richard Stallman on. Linux is a multi user (can use more than one user) and multi-tasking (can run several applications at once). Linux operating system but not Public Domain is free software under the GNU General Public License. Linux distribution is known, including: Red Hat, Fedora, Debian, SLS, and Slackware.

      1. History of Operating Systems

According to Tanenbaum, the operating system is experiencing rapid growth, which can be divided into four generations:

First generation (1945-1955)

The first generation was the beginning of the development of electronic computing systems as a substitute mechanical computing systems, it is because human velocity to calculate the human is limited and very easy to make a faux pas, mistakes and even mistakes. In this generation there is no operating system, then the computer systems were given instructions that must be done directly.

Second Generation (1955-1965)

The second generation introduced the Batch Processing System, the Job is done in a series, and then executed berurutan.Pada this generation of computer systems not equipped with an operating system, but some of the existing operating system functions, ie functions of the operating system is FMS and IBSYS.

Third Generation (1965-1980)

In this generation the development of operating systems developed to serve many users at once, where users communicate through interactive on-line terminal to a computer, the operating system into a multi-user (used by many users simultaneously) and multi-programming (serving many programs at once) .

Fourth Generation (Post 1980)

Today, the operating system used for computer networks where users aware of the computers that are connected to each other. At this time the users also have dinyamankan with a Graphical User Interface that is interface-based computer graphics are very comfortable, at this time also began the era of computing where computational dispersed-computing is no longer centered on one point, but broken down in many computer so that the performance achieved the better.

    1. Linux Fedora Core 14

image

  Figure 3.12. Fedora logo

Fedora Core, sometimes also called Fedora Linux) is an RPM-based Linux distribution developed by yum and the Fedora Project is supported by a community of programmers and sponsored by Red Hat. The name comes from the character Fedora fedora used in Red Hat logo. In release 1 to 6 of this distro called Fedora Core which then turned into Fedora on release to-7. Fedora Linux is recognized globally as a distro is a pioneer in the use of latest technology and is a distro that is used by Linus Torvalds.

History of Fedora:

The Fedora Project began in late 2003, when Red Hat Linux is stopped. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only official Red Hat distributions, whereas the distributions Fedora community. For Red Hat, Fedora is the experimental weeks to produce event distributions Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is stable, developed RHEL releases of Fedora versions.

The name comes from the Fedora Linux Fedora, volunteer projects that develop additional software for Red Hat Linux distributions, and from the characteristic fedora (hat leather) used in Red Hat logo (“Shadowman”). Fedora Linux is finally absorbed into the Fedora Project. Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat,

WarnaArtiMerahRilis long; not supported lagiKuningRilis long; still didukungHijauRilis next sekarangBiruRilis Name ProyekVersiNama SandiTanggal RilisFedora Fedora version:

  Table 3.2 version of Fedora

3.8.1 Advantages of Linux in the Network

Some of the advantages of Linux in the network are as follows:

    • Fluent in many protocols

Call it the start of the TCP / IP, IPv6, AppleTalk, NetWare, through ISDN and X.25. And Linux is here can double as a client and server for the protokolprotokol.

    • Broad support of the hardware

In terms of hardware, Linux has a very broad support to various network devices. From card ethernet, token ring, ATM, wireless, Bluetooth and other network devices are still a series. Linux is virtually always up to date against the trend of network devices.

    • Support file and printer sharing

In many network environments, Linux can take the file sharing network. Environment such as Windows, Apple and do not forget to NetWare and Unix.

    • Very ready for the Internet

From everything about the Mail (Mail Server, Mail User Agents, Mailing List Software, Remote acces to Mail), web (Web Server, Web Browser, Web Scripting), FTP, DNS, and many more services that can provide for the Linux Internet .

    • Can run applications remotely.

This is a feature that often go unnoticed by new users. Where with Linux, we can run applications that may be thousands of miles from where we are. This support is provided by several applications such as Telnet, SSH, X Window System, and VNC.

    • Rich in features

Some of the features offered as a complete implementation of routing protocols, IP Masqurade, IP accounting, IP Aliasing, Firewall, Intrusion Detection System and much more.

CHAPTER III

REVIEW REFERENCES

3.1 Definition of Computer Networks

Understanding the network is a collection of computer or multiple computers that are connected so that they can communicate and exchange data with a short time and can use the resources together. By looking at the above understanding of computer networks, it can be concluded some of the benefits of computer networks:

    • Network enables more efficient management of resources.
    • Network to help maintain reliable information and keep up to date.
    • Enabling delivery of more integrated network.
    • Networking enables workgroups to communicate more efficiently.
    • Data security is guaranteed.
    • Save on maintenance costs.

3.2. Basic Network

3.2.1 Peer-to-Peer

  Network operating system model peer to peer allows a user to share their resources in both computer data files, printers and other resources and access contained in another computer. But this model does not have a file server or a centralized resource


3.2.2 Workstation (Client / Server).

A file server is at the heart of the whole system, allowing for access resources, and providing security. Stand-alone workstation that can take the resources that exist on the file server. This network operating system, providing mekaninsme for integrating all the components in the network and allows multiple users to simultaneously use the resource on the file server. Linux, Novel Netware, and Windows NT is one example of a network operating system model of client-server

    1. Types of Computer Networks

In building a computer network there are several types of multicomputer networks, LAN (Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), WAN (W idea Area Network) and the Internet. For practical work report this type of network used is a LAN (Local Area Network).

1. Multicomputer

This network type is a system that communicate by sending messages through the short bus and very fast.

2. LAN (Local Area Network)

LAN is a network that connects multiple computers within a local area. Generally used in the home, office, industrial, university or academic, hospital and similar areas

3. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is basically a LAN version of the larger and usually wear the same technology with LAN. MAN can include corporate offices are adjacent and can be used for private purposes (private) or public.

4. Wide Area Network (WAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a wide geographical area, often covering a country or continent. WAN consists of a collection of machines that aim to run application programs.

5. Internetwork (Internet)

The number of networks in the world, often using hardware and software that is different. Most people desire is to combine all the existing network in the world, so the need for communication between computers will be easily met. Internet is a collection of networks interconnected with each other, if the system is connected not match then the gateway machine is required for the translator to packets that are sent can be received.

    1. Computer Network Topology LAN

Topology is a way to connect one computer to another computer so as to form a network. There is a type of network topology in which each has a characteristic topology, with its own advantages and drawbacks. For this type of topology that can be used include:

    1. Topology Bus

Bus topology uses a single cable where all workstations and servers are connected. The advantages of this topology is the development of a network or adding new workstations can be done without disturbing the other workstations. While the weakness of this topology when there are disturbances in the center of the cable along the entire network will come to crash.

    1. Topology Ring

In the ring topology all workstations and servers are connected to form a circle or ring patterns. Each workstation or server will receive and pass information from one computer to another, if the addresses match then the information is received and if no information will be passed. The drawback of this topology is that every node in the network will always come and manage the information passed in the network, so if there is a disturbance in a node then the entire network will be disrupted. While the advantages of ring topology is not collision or the collision of data transmission such as in a bus topology, since only one node can transmit data at a time.

  1. Topology Star

This topology where the network topology meruapakan using centralized control (Hub), all links must pass through the center of the channel data is all of a node or client chooses. Central node is called the primary station or a server and other is called the secondary stations or client server. Once the network connection initiated by the server, each server at any time the client can use the network connection without waiting for commands from the server.

    1. Type of Media Liaison Network

Cable is the interface to send information from one computer to another. There are several types of cables are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network using only one cable types, on the other network using a different cable. The cable chosen is based on the network topology, network protocol, and size. It’s very important to know because of the creation of a network depends on all of these aspects. Types of cables used in a network:

3.5.1 Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Twisted pair cable there are two types of shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and generally are the best choices for a simple network.

The quality of UTP cable is different with telephone, cable has four pairs of wires in it. Each pair are twins.

      • Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables category

Table 3.1 Categories of UTP

Type Use
Category 1 Voice Only (Telephone Wire)
Category 2 Data to 4 Mbps (LocalTalk)
Category 3 Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet)
Category 4 Data to 20 Mbps (16 Mbps Token Ring)
Category 5 Data to 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet)
      • Cable Connectors Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Standard connector for this cable type is RJ-45 connector.

Server Software Support

On the DNS Server Installation and Web Server was also required in addition to hardware software in planning a computer network. This section will discuss about the software being used.

      1. DNS (Domain Name System)

DNS (Domain Name System, in the Indonesian language is the Domain Naming System) is a system that stores information about hostnames and domain names in the form of scattered data base (distributed databases) in a computer network, such as the Internet. DNS provides the IP address for each host name, and lists the mail transmission server (mail exchange server) that receives electronic mail (email) for each domain.

DNS provides an important service to the Internet, where computers and network hardware work with IP addresses to perform tasks such as addressing and routing (routing), people generally prefer to use the host name and domain name, for example, is the appointment of a universal source (URL ) and e-mail address. A common analogy used to describe its function is to control can be regarded as a phone book in which the current internet users type in the internet browser http://www.sman13bl.edu then the user will be redirected to the IP address 192.168.100.1 (IPv4) and 2620:0:2 d0: 200:: 10 (IPv6).

        1. A Brief History of DNS

The use of the name as legible abstraction machine address in a computer network that is better known by man even TCP / IP, and back to the days of the ARPAnet. Formerly, every computer on the network computer using the file HOSTS.TXT from SRI (now SIR International), which maps an address to a name (technically, this file is still there – most modern operating systems use either raw or through configuration, can view the Hosts file to match a host name into an IP address before performing a search via DNS). However, the system had inherent limitations because of the obvious requirement that every time a computer’s address changed, every system that wanted to communicate with these computers need an update to its Hosts file.

DNS is a system that could replace the host address in just one place, other hosts will study these changes dynamically.

Paul Mockapetris invented the DNS in 1983; original specifications appear in RFC 882 and 883. In 1987, the publication of RFC 1034 and RFC 1035 updated the DNS specification. This makes the RFC 882 and RFC 883 obsolete. Several recent RFCs have memproposikan few extra from the core DNS protocols.

        1. THEORY OF WORK DNS

Management of the DNS system consists of three components:

    • DNS resolver, a client program that runs on a user’s computer, which makes DNS requests from application programs.
    • recursive DNS server, which searches through the DNS in response to queries from resolvers and returns answers to those resolvers;
    • authoritative DNS servers that provide answers to queries from recursor, either in the form of an answer, or in the form of delegation (ie referral to the authoritative DNS server).
        1. DNS in Practice

When an application (eg web browser), wants to find the IP address of a domain name, the application does not necessarily follow all the steps outlined in the above theory. We will first look at the concept of caching, and then outline the operation of DNS in the “real world”.

    • Caching and the lifetime (caching and time to live)

provision of mechanisms that can reduce the load of each Because the large number of requests from systems such as DNS, DNS designers wanted the DNS server. The mechanism devised provided that when a DNS resolver (client) receives a DNS response, it would cache for a specified period. A value (which is set by the administrator of the DNS server that provides the answer) called the time to live (life), or TTL defines that period. Once a response goes into cache, the resolver will consult its answer is stored in the cache; only when the TTL expires (or when the administrator flushes the response from the resolver’s memory manually) will the resolver contact the DNS server for the same information.

    • Propagation time (propagation time)

An important consequence of this distributed and caching architecture is that changes to the DNS are not always immediately effective in large scale / global. The following example will probably explain it: If an administrator has set a TTL of 6 hours for the host http://www.wikipedia.org, and then change the IP address of http://www.wikipedia.org at 12:01 pm, the administrator must consider that there are (at least) one individual who cached a response with the old value at 12:00 pm will not consult the DNS server to pk 18:00. The period between 12:00 pm and 18:00 pk in this example is called propagation time (propagation time), which can be defined as a period of time that begins between when a change of control data, and ends after the maximum time specified by the TTL passed . This will lead to logical considerations are important when making changes to DNS: not all will see the same thing as you can see. RFC1537 can help explain this.

    • DNS in the real world

In the real world, the user does not deal directly with the DNS resolver they are dealing with programs such as web brower (Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer, Netscape, Konqueror, etc. and mail clients (Outlook Express, Mozilla Thunderbird etc.) . When users make a request DNS lookups (generally, almost all activities that use the Internet), the program sends a request to the DNS resolver in the operating system.

        1. Note Type – The type of DNS

Important categories of data stored in the DNS include the following:

    • A record or address record maps a hostname to an IP address 32-bit (for IPv4).
    • AAAA record or IPv6 address record maps a host name to IP address 128-bit (for IPv6).
    • CNAME record or canonical name record makes one domain name an alias. In-alias domains to own the entire subdomains and DNS record as the original.
    • [MX record]] “or mail exchange record maps a domain name to the list of mail exchange servers for that domain.
    • PTR record or pointer record maps a hostname to canonical name for that host. Making the record PTR ​​for a host name in the in-addr.arpa domain that represents an IP address behind the quest to implement DNS (reverse DNS lookup) to that address. For example (when writing / translation of this article), http://www.icann.net have the IP address 192.0.34.164, but a PTR charted the record,, 164.34.0.192.in-addr.arpa to name kanoniknya: referrals.icann.org.
    • An NS record or name server record maps a domain name to a list of DNS servers for that domain. Representation depends on the record NS.
    • SOA record or start of authority (Start of Authority) the DNS server providing authoritative information about an Internet domain.
    • SRV record is a record of the location in general.
    • TXT record allows an administrator to insert arbitrary text into a DNS record; record is also used in the specification of the Sender Policy Framework.

Other kinds of records simply provide information (for example, a LOC record gives the physical location of a host, or experimental data (for example, a WKS record gives a list of servers that provide services are known (well-known service) such as HTTP or POP3 for a domain.

        1. DNS Software

Several types perangakat DNS software implement the DNS, some of them:

    • BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain)
    • djbdns (Daniel J. Bernstein ‘s DNS)
    • MaraDNS
    • QIP (Lucent Technologies)
    • NSD (Name Server Daemon)
    • PowerDNS
    • Microsoft DNS (for the server editions of Windows 2000 and Windows 2003)

One of the daemon on Linux that serves as a DNS server or name server is named. Named is part of the program package BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain), which has now reached version 9.

BIND (abbreviation of the English language: Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is the most common DNS server used on the Internet, especially on Unix-type operating system which is a de facto standard. BIND was originally created by four students with CSRG at the University of California, Berkeley and first released in 4.3BSD. Paul Vixie then forwards its programming in 1988 while working at the DEC.   

      1. Web Server

Web server is a server that handles requests a web page domain or address. These requests usually via port 80. On Linux, the web server (Apache) is known also as the http daemon. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocols) is a protocol used to communicate between the client (usually called a browser) and web server.

Web server is a facility that provides a reliable web application infrastructure, can be managed, and scalable. Web server provides a reliable web application infrastructure, can be managed, and scalable. Because most of this role has a lot of role services that can be selected and activated. So that a company can create a web of local networks that can be accessed by computers connected to the network server.

How it Works Web Server:

    • How it works Web Server Web server is the machine where the application or distribute the software to operate in a web page to the user, of course in accordance with user demand.
    • The relationship between Web Server and Internet Browser or a combination of existing computer networks around the world. Once physically connected, Protocol TCP / IP (networking protocol) which enables all computers can communicate with any others. At the time the browser requests a web page data to the server then the instruction requests data by the browser in containers in the TCP transport protocol and who is sent to the reply address in this case is the next protocol is Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP is the protocol in use on the World Wide Web (WWW) between a computer that is connected in a network in the world. To know the protocol is obviously unbelievably easy once where every time you type http:// … you have used it, and bring you into the world of the Internet. The passing of data from browser to Web server called the HTTP request beseeching web page and then the web server will look for existing HTML data and the pack in the TCP protocol and were sent back to the browser. The data being sent from the server to the browser is referred to as an HTTP response. If the data requested by the browser was not found by the web server then it will meninbulkan error oft you see on the web page that is Error: 404 Page Not Found.

3.7. Operating System

3.7.1 Definition of Operating System

The operating system is a liaison between the users of computers with computer hardware. Before there was an operating system, people only use a computer using an analog signal and digital signals. Along with the development of knowledge and technology, at present there are a variety of operating systems with the advantages of each. To better understand the operating system then you should need to know first some basic concepts about the operating system itself.

General understanding of the operating system is managing the resources contained on computer systems and provides a set of services (system calls) to the user, making it easier and comfortable use and utilization of computer system resources.

3.7.2 Basic Operating System Functions

The computer system basically consists of four main components, namely hardware, application programs, operating systems, and users. The operating system serves to regulate and supervise the use of hardware by the various application programs and users. Operating system to function like a government within a country, in the sense of making the conditions so that the computer can run the program properly.

To avoid conflicts that occur when users use the same resources, the operating system manage which users can access a resource. The operating system is also often called the resource allocator. One more important function is as an operating system control program that aims to avoid the mistake (error) and the unnecessary use of computers.

      1. Type of Operating System

Windows Operating 1.Sistem

Windows operating system made ​​by Microsoft company located in America and led by Bill Gates. Why is this operating system called “Windows”. Since that first appeared on the monitor screen when the computer is turned on is the image such as windows. Windows operating system is undergoing several changes and improvements.

At the end of the year 1980 (beginning of year 1990 to 1994) is famous for the Windows 3.0 operating system, Windows 3.1.1 are known to generations of Windows 3.x, then experience the changes to Windows 95 after Windows 98 (Windows 9.x), changed again into Windows 2000, Windows ME (Millennium Edition / Millennium Edition), windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7.

2.Sistem Linux Operating

Linux was made ​​in 1991 by Linus Torvalds is an operating system derived from Minix, Minix itself developed from the UNIX operating system is one of the world-famous. System equipment and libraries most of the GNU operating system announced by Richard Stallman on. Linux is a multi user (can use more than one user) and multi-tasking (can run several applications at once). Linux operating system but not Public Domain is free software under the GNU General Public License. Linux distribution is known, including: Red Hat, Fedora, Debian, SLS, and Slackware.

      1. History of Operating Systems

According to Tanenbaum, the operating system is experiencing rapid growth, which can be divided into four generations:

First generation (1945-1955)

The first generation was the beginning of the development of electronic computing systems as a substitute mechanical computing systems, it is because human velocity to calculate the human is limited and very easy to make a faux pas, mistakes and even mistakes. In this generation there is no operating system, then the computer systems were given instructions that must be done directly.

Second Generation (1955-1965)

The second generation introduced the Batch Processing System, the Job is done in a series, and then executed berurutan.Pada this generation of computer systems not equipped with an operating system, but some of the existing operating system functions, ie functions of the operating system is FMS and IBSYS.

Third Generation (1965-1980)

In this generation the development of operating systems developed to serve many users at once, where users communicate through interactive on-line terminal to a computer, the operating system into a multi-user (used by many users simultaneously) and multi-programming (serving many programs at once) .

Fourth Generation (Post 1980)

Today, the operating system used for computer networks where users aware of the computers that are connected to each other. At this time the users also have dinyamankan with a Graphical User Interface that is interface-based computer graphics are very comfortable, at this time also began the era of computing where computational dispersed-computing is no longer centered on one point, but broken down in many computer so that the performance achieved the better.

    1. Linux Fedora Core 14

Fedora Core, sometimes also called Fedora Linux) is an RPM-based Linux distribution developed by yum and the Fedora Project is supported by a community of programmers and sponsored by Red Hat. The name comes from the character Fedora fedora used in Red Hat logo. In release 1 to 6 of this distro called Fedora Core which then turned into Fedora on release to-7. Fedora Linux is recognized globally as a distro is a pioneer in the use of latest technology and is a distro that is used by Linus Torvalds.

History of Fedora:

The Fedora Project began in late 2003, when Red Hat Linux is stopped. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only official Red Hat distributions, whereas the distributions Fedora community. For Red Hat, Fedora is the experimental weeks to produce event distributions Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is stable, developed RHEL releases of Fedora versions.

The name comes from the Fedora Linux Fedora, volunteer projects that develop additional software for Red Hat Linux distributions, and from the characteristic fedora (hat leather) used in Red Hat logo (“Shadowman”). Fedora Linux is finally absorbed into the Fedora Project. Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat,

3.8.1 Advantages of Linux in the Network

Some of the advantages of Linux in the network are as follows:

    • Fluent in many protocols

Call it the start of the TCP / IP, IPv6, AppleTalk, NetWare, through ISDN and X.25. And Linux is here can double as a client and server for the protokolprotokol.

    • Broad support of the hardware

In terms of hardware, Linux has a very broad support to various network devices. From card ethernet, token ring, ATM, wireless, Bluetooth and other network devices are still a series. Linux is virtually always up to date against the trend of network devices.

    • Support file and printer sharing

In many network environments, Linux can take the file sharing network. Environment such as Windows, Apple and do not forget to NetWare and Unix.

    • Very ready for the Internet

From everything about the Mail (Mail Server, Mail User Agents, Mailing List Software, Remote acces to Mail), web (Web Server, Web Browser, Web Scripting), FTP, DNS, and many more services that can provide for the Linux Internet .

    • Can run applications remotely.

This is a feature that often go unnoticed by new users. Where with Linux, we can run applications that may be thousands of miles from where we are. This support is provided by several applications such as Telnet, SSH, X Window System, and VNC.

    • Rich in features

Some of the features offered as a complete implementation of routing protocols, IP Masqurade, IP accounting, IP Aliasing, Firewall, Intrusion Detection System and much more.

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